What is it ?
Free fall is the movement of a body subject only to the influence of gravity, without any air resistance or any other type of force. This means that if an object subject to the earth's attraction is dropped into an empty space, it will continue to fall indefinitely with a constant acceleration of 9.8 m/s² (1 g).
The concept of free fall was discovered by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century. He also established the fundamental law of dynamics that all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass. This law is known as "Galileo's Law of Free Fall".
The mathematical formula for calculating the distance traveled by an object in free fall is:
d = 1/2 * g * t²
where d is the distance traveled (in meters), g is the acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s²) and t is the elapsed time (in seconds).
For example, if an object is dropped from the top of a 100 meter tower and falls for 5 seconds, the distance traveled will be:
d = 1/2 * 9.8 * 5² = 122.5 meters
The speed at which the object will hit the ground will be:
v = g * t = 9.8 * 5 = 49 m/s